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Introduction The Earths atmosphere is in continuous motion movement which is attempting to balance the constant differences in pressure and temperature between different parts of the globe It is this motion which carries water from the ocean to the continents to provide precipitation and moves heat energy from the tropical regions toward the poles warming the high latitudes It is this circulation which plays a basic part in maintaining a steady state in the atmosphere and generating the climatic zones which characterise different parts of the earth China from its latitudinal location mostly belongs to the mid-latitudes with a small part to the low latitudes It is located at south of Siberia and the north of the tropical Pacific At this distinctive location the country is affected by the alternate seasonal expansion and contraction of the polar continental highs and tropical maritime air masses along with the seasonal shifts of the overhead sun These changes in the pressure systems over Asia generate the unique Asian monsoon circulation which prevails over China throughout the year Surface Pressure Field and Winds For any fluid to initiate movements pressure gradient must exists Therefore for a close understanding of the circulation system that operates over China we should start from discussing the seasonal pressure distribution at sea-level over the Asia-Pacific region which is the driving force for the air movements in China Most clearly to be seen the largest difference in the atmospheric pressure occurs between winter and summer whereby January and July can be considered as representative months In January a typical cold anticyclone with central pressure above 1040 hectopascals hPa developed over mid-Siberia and Mongolia Mongolian High while a strongly established cyclone over the north-western Pacific Ocean Aleutian Low Since both pressure systems practically lie in the same latitude of 50 to 55N a steep pressure gradient occurs which produces strong and persistent north-westerlies over Northeast China A third pressure system which affects China although limited
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