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Transformation in the Military Our current National Security Strategy NSS National Military Strategy NMS and existing Army force structure were ill conceived for the future of the Army As a result of the Bottom-Up Review BUR the Army was right sized and structured to meet the requirements to fight and win two major theater wars MTWs However this force structure was never intended to support current deployment levels for military operations other than war MOOTW In fact the BUR warned that protracted commitments to peace operations could lower the overall readiness of US active duty forces over time and in turn reduce our ability to fulfill our strategy to be able to win two nearly simultaneous major regional conflicts US Department of Defense 1993 p94 Increased MOOTW deployments such as Somalia Haiti and Bosnia have driven the Armys operational tempo OPTEMPO to historically high levels As prophesied by the BUR the Armys overall readiness is declining Moreover given our current NSS a turbulent international community ripe with MOOTW opportunities and continuing fiscal pressures it is unlikely the Army can expect a reduction to OPTEMPO in the near future In short the Army is faced with a strategy and force structure mismatch To compound this mismatch the Army faces another pressing problem in its responsibilities to support joint warfighting As joint warfighting doctrine continues to evolve and improve deficiencies concerning critical missions such as rear area protection of the joint logistics and sustainment base and the need for a war-termination force have surfaced US Department of Defense 1995 pp1-9 These unique Army missions pose a difficult challenge How can the Army correct these joint warfighting deficiencies in an environment that already overtaxes its capabilities and resources Late in the Cold War the Armys strategy for using its Reserve Component RC forces was totally different from todays Born of the joint vision of General Creighton Abrams and Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird the Total Force concept was
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