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Atmospheric Circulation and More The global energy balance and atmospheric motion mainly determinethe circulation of the earths atmosphere There is a hierarchy of motionin atmospheric circulation Each control can be broken down into smallercontrolling factors The global energy balance is an equal balance ofshort-wave radiation coming into the atmosphere and long-wave radiationgoing out of the atmosphere This is called thermal equilibrium Theearth is at thermal equilibrium however there can have a surplus ordeficit of energy in parts of the heat budget If you have a netradiation surplus warm air will rise and a net radiation deficit willmake the air cool an fall Air gets heated at the equator because of theinter tropical convergence zone and rises to the poles There the air iscooled and it floats back down to the equator where the process isrepeated Another major contributing factor to the circulation of the airis due to the subtropical highs These highs like the ITCZ migrate duringthe different seasons The idealized belt model is a great representation of the generalcirculation of the atmosphere The equatorial belt of variable winds andcalms ranges from 5 degrees north to 5 degrees south This wind belt ischaracterized by weak winds and low pressure from the inter tropicalconvergence zone As you go further north or south you encounter theHadley Cells Hadley cell circulation is caused by the movement of highpressure from the latitudes at 5 to 30 degrees north and 5 to 30 degreessouth to low pressure areas around the equator The movement of air from high pressure to low pressure causesconvergence This convergence generates the production of wind Thewinds that are produced from this are the trade winds The winds blowfrom a northwest direction in the northern hemisphere and in the southernhemisphere the winds blow from a southeast direction The trade winds arethe largest wind belt The westerlies they lie between 35 and 60 degreesnorth and south latitude The
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