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Cohesion according to Shi2004 is the network of lexical grammatical and other relations which link various parts of text pp1 These relations link sentences together and require us to understand there meanings by looking at other words or phrases in other sentences Halliday and Hasan 1976 have identified a number of ways in which cohesion is achieved in written discourse in the English language I will discuss four of these ways in this writing co-reference lexical relationships ellipsis and conjunctive relations Co-reference In semantics this term refers to the relationship that exists between a word and what it represents in the real world Shi 2004 Here it has a pragmatic meaning that is the meaning of the word can only be interpreted from context Fromkin 2000 Look at the following examples 1John was injured in a car accident yesterday He will be hospitalized for at least a week 2Did you see that Mikey just swallowed a whole hotdog In these two examples the meaning of the words he and that cannot be determined semantically We have to look at the surrounding words and expressions ie the context to see the he refers to John and that refers to what Mikey has just done ie swallowed a whole hotdog In the first example the meaning of he is determined by a previous sentence whereas in example two the meaning of that is determined by looking at what follows The first is an example of an anaphoric relationship and the second a cataphoric relationship Mangubhai 2003 Lexical relationships These are relationships between lexical items that are not cohesive in function like pronouns in the previous section but when associated with other lexical items can have a cohesive relationship Shi 2004 This relationship can be due to synonymy antonymy sub-ordinates hyponymy or even general words Lets look at some examples There is a ferocious looking dog in the park The poodle is going to bite
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