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Word Count: 500
A protein is a unique three dimensional biological polymer constructed from 20 different monomers called amino acid Some of amino acids are glycine alanine valine leucine etc There are three structural levels in the conformation of a protein called primary secondary and tertiary structure Primary structure is the unique genetically coded sequence of amino acids within a protein Amino acids are bonded by peptide bond which links the amino group of one amino acid with the carboxyl group of another yielding a polymer of amino acid called polypeptide The polypeptide varies greatly in length from a few to thousand amino acid and has a amino group at one end and carboxyl group at the other end Sanger 1940 first sequenced insulins amino acid first Even a slight deviation from the sequence of amino acids can severely affect a proteins function by altering the proteins conformation like a single mutation of amino acid in hemoglobin case sickle cell anemia a blood disorder that may be transferred from generation to generation Secondary structure involves the coiling of folding of the polypeptide backbone An alpha helix is a delicate coil produced by hydrogen bonding between every fourth peptide bond in the polypeptide chain An example of a alpha helix containing protein is alpha keratin the structural protein of the hair which has alpha helix through out its length A pleated sheet is also held by repeated hydrogen bonds along the proteins backbone An example of pleated sheet is the structural protein of the silk In an globular protein pleated sheet make up the core of the protein and alpha helix forms the few stretches which is separated by the non helical region Tertiary structure of a protein is formed by the interactions between the various side chains of the constituent amino acids Different kinds of bonds are apparent in the tertiary structure Hydrophobic interactions between nonpolar side groups in the center of the molecule causes the hydrophobic side
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