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Critical Analysis on the Metaphysics of St Thomas Aquinas Metaphysics is the philosophical study whose object is to determine the real nature of thingsto determine the meaning structure and principles of whatever is insofar as it is Although this study is popularly conceived as referring to anything excessively subtle and highly theoretical and although it has been subjected to many criticisms it is presented by metaphysicians as the most fundamental and most comprehensive of inquiries inasmuch as it is concerned with reality as a whole It is the heart of philosophy rooted in the ancient Greeks especially Plato and Aristotle whose insights made their way in to Catholic Church through men like Augustine and Thomas Aquinas The background to Aristotles divisions is to be found in the thought of Plato with whom Aristotle had many disagreements but whose basic ideas provided a framework within which much of his own thinking was conducted Plato following the early Greek philosopher Parmenides who is known as the father of metaphysics had sought to distinguish opinion or belief from knowledge and to assign distinct objects to each Opinion for Plato was a form of apprehension that was shifting and unclear similar to seeing things in a dream or only through their shadows its objects were correspondingly unstable Knowledge by contrast was wholly lucid it carried its own guarantee against error and the objects with which it was concerned were eternally what they were and so were exempt from change and the deceptive power to appear to be what they were not Plato called the objects of opinion phenomena or appearances he referred to the objects of knowledge as noumena objects of the intelligence or quite simply as realities Much of the burden of his philosophical message was to call mens attentions to these contrasts and to impress them with the necessity to turn away from concern with mere phenomena to the investigation of true reality The education
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