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Introduction Vinegar lab Acids and bases including salts that hydrolyze behave uniquely to establish states of equilibria when they dissociate in water There are three classic acid-base theories Arrhenius Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis The Arrhenius theory defines an acid as any substance that is capable of producing hydrogen ions H or more appropriately hydronium ions H3O in aqueous solution while a base is any substance that produces hydroxide ions in solution According to Bronsted-Lowry theory acids by the definition are proton donors and bases proton acceptors Acids differ in their tendency to lose protons and bases in tendency to accept them Those acids that donate and bases that accept protons readily we call strong Strong and weak acids and bases have different properties This tendency is reflected by equilibrium of reaction of dissociation of acids or bases in water If the equilibrium is shifted strongly to the right concentration of H3O in solution is big an acid is strong A titration is a procedure used in analytical chemistry to determine the amount or concentration of a substance In a titration one reagent the titrant is added to another slowly As it is added a chemical reaction occurs until one of the reagents is exhausted and some process or device signals that this has occurred Its purpose is generally to determine the quantity or concentration of one of the reagents that of the other being known beforehand In any titration there must be a rapid quantitative reaction taking place as the titrant is added and in acid-base titrations this is a stoichiometric neutralization The type of titration is simply the type of chemical reaction taking place acid-base titrations All acid-base titration reactions are simply exchanges of protons The reaction could be strong acid strong base -- neutral salt as in the case of HCl NaOH -- NaCl H2O although the reaction would be correctly written as H3O OH- -- H2O since
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