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Earth Science Folding The process by which crustal forces deform an area of crust so that layers of rock are pushed into folds Faulting The process by which crustal forces cause a rock formation to break and slip along a fault Fold A bent or warped stratum or sequence of strata that was originally horizontal or neatly so Fault A planar or gently curved fracture in the earths crust across which there has been relative displacement of the two blocks of rock parallel to the fracture Interpreting Field data Measuring Strike and Dip It takes 2 measurements to describe the orientation of a layer of rock exposed at a given location Strike The direction of the intersection of a rock layer with a horizontal surface Dip Measured at right angles to the strike is simply the amount of tilting the angle at which the inclines from the horizontal Constructing a Geological Map and Cross Section Geological maps include oLocations of outcrops oThe nature of the rocks oThe dips and strikes of inclined layers How Rocks Become Deformed 3 types of tectonic forces oCompressive forces squeeze and shorten a body oTensional forces stretch a body and tend to pull it apart oShearing forces push two sides of a body in opposite directions What Determines Whether a Rock Bends or Breaks If subject to tectonic forces near surface where confining pressure is low it would tend to deform by fracturing and faulting If deeper than few Kms it would change shape by gradually foldingalso if hot Brittleness and Ductility Brittle rocks little change then breaks Ductile rocks smooth and continuous plastic deformation Igneous rocks are more brittle stronger than sedimentary rocks Basement rocks more brittle than overlaying sedimentary rocks How Rocks Fold Types of Folds Anticlines Upfolds or arches of layered rocks Synclines Downfolds or troughs Limbs
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