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Introduction Music has been known for centuries to have a powerful effect on human responses In the social science context music is particularly known for its effectiveness in triggering moods and communicating nonverbally Many marketing practitioners already accept this notion given that music is increasingly used as a stimulus in the retail environment as well as in radio and television advertising Music has been shown to affect consumer behaviours particularly shopper behaviour Milliman 1986 as well as emotional responses Kellaris and Kent 1994 Marketers that playing music is in itself not enough that music needs to be used to target groups in the market place to differentiate from competitors and to maximise image rather than serving as a distraction It is therefore not surprising that music has become a major component of consumer marketing both at the point of purchase and in advertising Bruner 1990 In this essay we will explore the role of music in advertising Advertising Seidman 1981 reviewed the contributions of music to media productions movies and educational films concluding that cognitive and affective comprehension of stimuli can be influenced Music is a complex chemistry of controllable elements Bruner 1990 Unfortunately no definitive taxonomy of music elements has been developed Time and pitch-related characteristics appear on almost all lists and also have some empirical confirmation Kellaris and Kent 1994 Though less clear evidence also has been found for a third factor musical texture Bruner 1990 Advertisers often deliberately try to convey and transfer underlying yet unasserted meanings to viewers The view that an advertisement is a one-way communicative process is a narrow one since one also needs to consider the information processing responses of the receivers as they perceive and interpret messages and images in advertisements Procter et al 2001 Designers of advertising messages expect viewers to perceive and process these massages into favourable inferences that may result in behavioural reactions in terms of getting attention developing interest and stimulating
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