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Population term referring to the total human inhabitants of a specified area such as a city country or continent at a given time Population study as a discipline is known as demography It is concerned with the size composition and distribution of populations their patterns of change over time through births deaths and migration and the determinants and consequences of such changes Population studies yield knowledge important for planning particularly by governments in fields such as health education housing social security employment and environmental preservation Such studies also provide information needed to formulate government population policies which seek to modify demographic trends in order to achieve economic and social objectivesDemography is an interdisciplinary field involving mathematics and statistics biology medicine sociology economics history geography and anthropology The field of demography has a relatively brief history Its beginning often is dated from the publication in 1798 of An Essay on the Principle of Population by the British economist Thomas Robert Malthus In this work Malthus warned of the constant tendency for human population growth to outstrip food production and classified the various ways that such growth would in consequence be slowed He distinguished between positive checks to population growth such as war famine and disease and preventive checks celibacy and contraceptionThe development of demography has been tied closely to the gradually increasing availability of data on births and deaths from parish and civil registers and on population size and composition from the censuses that became common in the 19th century see Census The growth of behavioral sciences in the 20th century and advances in the fields of statistics and computer sciences further stimulated demographic research Subfields of mathematical economic and social demography have grown rapidly in recent decadesModern national governments and international organizations place a high priority on the accurate determination of national and worldwide populations Describing the present population and predicting those of the future with reasonable accuracy requires reliable dataNational censuses civil registration and
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