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From Graphite to Diamond The Whole Journey It is a long journey for a piece of graphite to transform into a beautiful diamond It only takes a little energy 19 Kj mole but it is a very difficult process To create a diamond you must have temperatures ranging from room temperature to four thousand degrees Celsius but the big factor is that you must have at least one-hundred thousand and upwards of a million pounds of pressure per square inch Sass Diamonds are born 50 miles below Earths surface in the hot mantle where a pressure of 55000 atmospheres and a temperature near 2700 degrees Fahrenheit pound away at the graphite to turn it into a beautiful diamond Preiser 22 Diamonds were formed millions of years ago in molten lava As the lava flowed to the Earths surface through vents known as pipes it cooled and solidified into kimberlite a blue rock Kimberlite contains the diamonds and is known to diamond miners as blue ground Comptons Diamonds have been found on all continents India was once a chief source In about AD 600 diamonds were found in Borneo and are still mined there The rich fields of Brazil were discovered in the 1700s In the 19th century even richer diamond fields were found in South Africa Most of the worlds diamonds are mined in African countries Zaire produces mostly industrial diamonds South Africa is the major source of gem-quality diamonds Congo Ghana Namibia and Angola are other major suppliers Russia has diamond-mining operations in northeastern Siberia Since the late 1970s many diamonds have been found in Australia Comptons About 20 percent of the worlds output is used for industrial purposes with the United States importing some 60 percent of the industrial diamonds mined A few diamonds are found in Pike County Ark and diamonds have also been found in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan
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