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The differences between Spearman and Gardner Shaun Kelly American Intercontinental University The differences between Spearman and Gardner Edward Spearmans name is almost synonymous with general intelligence or g for short He invented the first form of factor analysis and proposed a two-factor theory of intelligence He had sort of a math formula that said every activity involves a general factor plus a specific factor G S From these theories he said that people who do well on intelligence tests also do well on a variety of intellectual tasks Vocabulary and mathematical and spatial abilities Wilderdom 2003 So for example of g Spearman would theorize that people who score well on a verbal test have a lot of intelligence but they are affected by their abilities to perform verbal tasks In laments terms if you scored well on a verbal test you studied and have the brain capacity to understand and comprehend the material Howard Gardner on the other hand has a different point of view on intelligence Instead of one main intelligence to focus on he has seven Verbal Mathematical Musical Spatial Kinesthetic Interpersonal and intrapersonal functionings Wilderdom 2003 While these are all forms of intelligence they function separately he argues Gardner goes a different route than Spearman basing he theories on biological facts Premise 1 If it can be found that certain brain parts can distinctively map with certain cognitive functioning then that cognitive functioning can be isolated as one candidate of multiple intelligences Premise 2 Now it has been found that certain brain parts do distinctively map with certain cognitive functioning as evidenced by certain brain damage leading to loss of certain cognitive function Washington U 2002 These theories give a basis for multiple intelligences Biologically Gardner determines that the brain is the major player in the equation For example if a person was physically handicapped he determined that the particular part of the person brain that controlled motor functions
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