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Fiber optics technology is among fastest - growing communications technologies in the world It is increasingly being used for communications signaling and electrical control instead of older -technology hardwired system Fiber optic cable uses light to transmit signals The core of Fiber optic cable is composed of one or more thin strands of either very pure glass or plastic millions of which can be bundled together in a sheathing In 1860 Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated that light reflected off of mirrors was modulated by waves of sound Later American researchers were able to demonstrate the transmission of an image through a bundle of glass fibers Researchers began experimenting with cladding which greatly improved transmission characteristics by reducing the dispersion of light Later lasers were implemented as light sources because they could provide parallel light in a steady stream at only one wavelength The first of the low-loss optical fibers was created in 1970 In 1980 the first major Fiber Optic communication link between Boston Mass and Richmond VA was created A year later low-loss single-mode fibers with high bandwidth and low loss capabilities to increase data transmission rates were created Starting in the mid-eighties the major communication companies began installing long-distance Fiber Optic communication systems using single-mode fibers In 1988 the first transatlantic Fiber Optic cable was installed Since then Optical Fiber technology has been implemented in major communication networks that have realized its significance and importance Two basic optical fiber are commonly being installed singlemode and multimode Each type has a particular use in the communication industry although there may be some overlap in usage A singlemode optical cable may have a core diameter of 8 to 10 microns while a multimode cable may have a core diameter of between 50 and 1000 microns A singlemode cable allows a higher bandwidth to be transmitted over a larger distance than a multimode cable Singlemode cable The multimode optical cable however
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