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Foot and mouth disease FMD is a severe highly communicable viral disease of cattle sheep and swine It also will affect goats deer and other cloven-hoofed animals This disease is characterized by fever and blister-like lesions on the tongue and lips in the mouth on the udders and between the claws Many affected animals usually recover but the disease leaves them debilitated It causes severe losses in the production of milk and meat This disease spreads widely and rapidly and it carries with it grave economic and physical consequences Because of these reasons many livestock owners dread this disease This disease is caused by a virus This virus has the ability to remain viable in carcasses in animal by-products in water in such materials as straw and bedding and even in the open pastures There are seven different types and many subtypes of FMD virus The animal s can become infected by one or more than one virus types at the same type Recovered animals can suffer repeated attacks of the disease because immunity to one type does not protect against other types FMD is spread by animals people and materials that bring the virus into physical contact with susceptible animals Some of the causes of an outbreak are vPeople wear contaminated clothes of footwear or use contaminated equipment vContaminated animals are introduced to susceptible herds vContaminated facilities are used to hold susceptible animals vContaminated vehicles are used to transport animals vRaw or improperly cooked garbage containing infected meat or animals products is fed to animals vAnimals are exposed to areas that may have been contaminated with the virus vAnimals drink contaminated water vCow is inseminated by semen from an infected bull There has been no documented case of human becoming infected with the disease however they can carry it on heir clothes and hair even in their lungs and nostrils the virus which kills cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle
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