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St Thomas Aquinas 1225-12745 was an Eclectic Aristotelian and a Christian His teacher was Albert Magnus also known as Albert the Great St Thomas wrote two major works the Summa Theologica and Suma Contra Gentiles In the Summa Theologica he had perhaps his most famous single work his proofs for the existence of God These were knows as the Five Ways These were 1The fact of change proves an ultimate agent of change 2The chain of causation proves a first cause that needs to be uncaused to end the otherwise endless chain of events 3The contingent facts of the world require an ultimate Being 4The fact of graduation of things as higher and lower suggests Perfected Being at the top of the hierarchy 5The order and design found in nature suggest a highest Being at the Source The first and more manifest way is the argument from motion It is certain to our senses that in the world some things are in motion Now another puts whatever is in motion in motion for nothing can be in motion unless another acts it upon For motion is nothing else than the reduction of something from potentiality to actuality But nothing can be reduced from potentiality to actuality except by something in a state of actuality Thus that which is actually hot such as fire makes wood which is potentially hot to be actually hot when set aflame and thereby moves and changes it Now it is not possible that the same thing should be at once in actuality and potentiality in the same time period but only in different aspects For what is actually hot cannot simultaneously be potentially hot but it is simultaneously potentially cold It is therefore impossible that in the same respect and in the same way a thing should be both mover and moved that it should move by itself Therefore whatever is in motion must be put in motion by
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