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Word Count: 306
The Baroque style of art and architecture developed in Europe England and the Americas during the 17th and early 18th centuries The baroque style is characterized by an emphasis on unity among the arts The baroque artist achieved harmony in painting sculpture and architecture and created new spatial relationships In painting and sculpture this was achieved by means of highly developed naturalistic illusionism usually heightened by dramatic lighting effects creating an unequaled sense of theatricality energy and movement of forms Architecture unlike that of the Renaissance took on the fluid aspects of sculpture Landscapes still lifes and genre scenes were painted by such artists as Claude Lorrain Jacob van Ruisdael and Jan Vermeer and Caravaggio The illusionistic effects of deep space interested many painters Other baroque painters opened up interior spaces by representing long files of rooms often with extended views through doors windows or mirrors as in the works of Diego Velzquez and Vermeer Color was manipulated for its emotional effects ranging from the clear calm tones of Nicholas Poussin to the warm and shimmering colors of Pietro da Cortona to the more vivid hues of Peter Paul Rubens A heightened sense of drama was achieved through chiaroscuro in the works of Caravaggio and Rembrandt Baroque sculptors felt free to combine different materials within a single work and often used one material to simulate another Buildings of the period are composed of great curving forms with ground plans of incredible size and complexity Baroque architects used domes of various shapes Many works of baroque architecture were executed on a colossal scale incorporating aspects of urban planning and landscape architecture This is most clearly seen in Berninis elliptical piazza in front of St Peters in Rome or in the gardens fountains and palace at Versailles designed by Louis Le Vau Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Andre Le Notre
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