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Studies have shown that students who participate in extracurricular activities are less likely to consume drugs if they are subject to random drug testing This way a students health can be monitored just as their education is Conversely random drug testing has continued to under go criticism from students parents and administrators They argue that random drug testing infringes on their constitutional rights However random drug testing should be protected by the Fourth and the Fourteenth Amendment The Fourth Amendment mandates that federal actors not subject individuals to unreasonable searches and seizures allowing them to maintain their bodily personal and professional integrity McCray 387 By incorporation the Fourteenth Amendment extends the Fourth Amendments edict to guarantee the same rights against state actors state actors includes public school officials McCray 387 When the public school requires the mandatory collection of urine or other body specimens in drug testing programs the Supreme Court has consistently held that the programs constitute searches within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment McCray 387-426 Therefore random drug testing of student who participates in extracurricular activities is with the boundaries of the Fourth Amendment protections Recently The US Supreme Court ruled that the Fourth Amendment permitted a school policy that prevented students from participating in interscholastic sports unless they agree to random drug testing In the case of Vernonia v Acton James Acton who was a seventh grader during the 1991-92 school year applied to be on the football team He was given a drug-test consent form for him and his parents to sign This was done for every student trying out for sports No one suspected James of using drugs However he and his parents refused to sign the form and he was then suspended from interscholastic athletics The Actons sued the school district Nevertheless the Supreme Court ruled against the Actons stating that students have a reduced expectation of privacy and should expect intrusions on their normal rights and privileges
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