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Word Count: 778
The Petrov Affair During the Cold War between Communist and democratic nations in the late 1940s Communism was feared by many Australians Menzies exploited that fear during his time as prime minister But his attempts to outlaw the Communist Party were declared invalid by the High Court and rejected by the electorate in a referendum in 1951 The issue of Communism however split the Labor Party guaranteeing the Liberal-Country Party coalition a long term in office In 1954 Menzies announced the defection of Vladimir Petrov a Soviet diplomat and the creation of a Royal Commission to investigate Petrovs allegations of a Soviet spy ring in Australia Diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union were severed After two of his staff was called before the commission Evatt claimed that the Petrov Affair had been engineered to discredit him politically Immigration Policy The most successful and visible component of postwar reconstruction was Australias immigration program directed by Arthur Calwell Assisted passage was given not just to British immigrants but also to immigrants from mainland Europe and displaced people and refugees In all 853953 immigrants arrived in Australia between 1947 and 1960 The impact of these new Australians on society was profound Australia was seriously under populated after World War II partly because of the low birth rate resulting from the depression in the 1930s and also because of the loss of more than 37000 servicemen in the war For Australia there were the benefits of creating a bigger domestic market and providing a workforce for new industries and projects such as the Snowy Mountains Scheme By international agreement Australia took thousands of displaced people from Eastern Europe In the 1950s and 1960s Greeks and Italians entered Australia in large numbers In 1958 the federal government abolished the dictation test Government policies towards Aborigines After the war ended in 1945 many changes took place throughout Aboriginals in Australia From a new climate of opinion and action
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