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Industrialization of American Society Mechanization as seen in Western society is the result of a rationalistic view of the world After the development of factories during the Industrial Revolution the nineteenth-century factory remained essentially a job shop with various machines placed randomly about in corners and on different floors their individual motions controlled by a large wheel often placed in the basement Steam power available since the invention of the steam engine by James Watt was transmitted vertically through the factory building from the basement to the top floor primary belting transferred motion to secondary shafts which in turn transmitted power via pulleys to individual machines Hirchhorn 1984 p 10 In the latter half of the nineteenth century with the widening of the railroad network the accelerated growth of metropolitan areas and in America the mechanizing of many complicated crafts the influence of mechanization was already reaching deeper into life Giedion 1948 The Industrial Revolution spanned the industrialization of society with its three major aspects the division of labor specialization and mechanization Each of these three factors helped to create the modern industrial society with the vision of mass production and the assembly line The Industrial Revolution transplanted from England to the Untied States caused what was by the 1850s known as the American system of manufacturing Woodbury 1972 In the United States the first factory system appeared in Waltham and Lowell in the 1810s and 1820s in the textile industry The factory system then spread to the chemical and metallurgical industries in the 1840s and to all market-oriented industries by the 1860s and 1870s Nelson 1980 This American model of manufacturing which included mass manufacture by power-driven machinery and interchangeable parts was dominated by machine processes Machine processes dictated the nature and organization of production although there was no uniformity in production layout or methods between different industries For example in the textile industry machines almost immediately created a sequential manufacturing process that
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