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Propaganda is an attempt to influence opinion by presenting distorted exaggerated or untrue facts of information or facts in a way that will appeal to emotions or feelings rather than to reason As generally understood propaganda is opinion expressed for the purpose of influencing actions of individuals or groupsName-calling is labeling thing and people without telling the facts Bad names have played a powerful role in the history of the world and in our own individual growth They have ruined reputations and also sent people to jail They have been and are applied to other people groups gangs tribes colleges political parties neighborhoods states sections of the country nations and racesThe name-calling technique links a person or idea to a negative symbol The propagandist who uses this technique hopes that the audience will reject the person or the idea based on the negative symbol or name instead of looking at the available evidence The name-calling technique was first identified by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis IPA in 1938 According to the IPA we should ask ourselves the following questions when we see an example of name-callingDoes that person or idea have a connection with the real meaning of the nameGlittering generalities are vague phrases that do not mean much or tell much We believe in fight for and live by virtue words about which we have deep-set ideas Such words include civilization Christianity good proper right democracy patriotism motherhood fatherhood science medicine health and love For our purposes in propaganda analysis we call these virtue words Glittering Generalities in order to focus attention upon this dangerous characteristic that they have They mean different things to different people they can be used in different waysWhen someone talks to us about a certain subject we immediately think of our own definite ideas about that subject the ideas we learned at home at school or in church Our first and natural reaction is to assume that the speaker
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