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Charles Darwin a British naturalist revolutionized biology with his theory of evolution through the process of natural selection Herbert Spencer was the major philosopher of biological and social evolution Spencers work significantly influenced 19th century developments in biology psychology sociology and anthropology While Darwin was influential in the fields of natural history and geology his theory of evolution created great controversy He changed the way people thought about the role of humans in the natural world Although these two men made advancement in the theory of evolution they had contrasting views regarding anthropological study Charles Darwin was an English naturalist who first solidly established the theory of organic evolution in his work The Origin of Species Darwin was born in Shresbury Shropshire on February 12 1809 His grandfather Erasmus Darwin was a famous English scientist and poet In 1825 the young Darwin went to Edinburgh University to become a doctor The same year however he transferred to Christs College in Cambridge in order to become a clergyman During this time he befriended a man of science John Steven Henslow It was Henslow who recommended him for the unpaid position of naturalist on the HMS Beagle Darwin set sail on December 27 1831 to study the Pacific coast of South America and the Pacific Islands His other duty was to set up navigation stations in the area He also studied the geology and biology of these areas Upon his return in 1839 Darwin married his cousin Emma Wedgewood and was admitted to the Royal Society He moved to Downe Kent in 1842 and was plagued by ill health until his death He apparently transmitted Trypanosomiastis from frequent bug bites in the Pacific Darwin died on April 19 1882 and was buried in Westminster Abbey In The Origin of Species Darwin presented his idea that species evolve from more primitive species through the process of natural selection which occurs spontaneously in nature In his theory of how
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