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Galilei Galileo 1564-1642 Italian astronomer mathematician and physicist was born in Pisa Italy He started Pisa University as a medical student in 1581 and became professor of mathematics at Padua1592-1610 where he improved the refracting telescope 1610 and was the first person to use astronomy At the age of 19 he found out the principle of isochronism-that each oscillation of a pendulum takes the same time despite the changes in amplitude He found experimentally that bodies do not fall with velocities proportional to their weights a conclusion received with hostility because it contradicted the accepted teaching of Aristotle NEWTONS LAW OF MOTION Galileo discovered the path of a projectile is a parabola and he is credited with anticipating Isaac Newtons laws of motion Newtons three laws of motion are 1 a body at rest tends to remain at rest or a body in motion tends to remain in motion at a constant speed in a straight line unless acted on by an outside force 2the acceleration a of a mass m by a force F is directlyproportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass or a Fm 3 for every action there is an equaland opposite reaction The third law implies that the total of a system of bodies not acted on by an external force remains constant THE TELESCOPE 1609 he constructed the first astronomical telescope which he used to discover the four largest satellites of Jupiter and the stellar composition of the Milky Way In deep study of the theory of refraction and he prepared a tube at first of lead in the ends of which he fitted two lenses both plane on one side but on the other side one spherically convex and the other concave He said he saw objects satisfactorily large and near for they appeared one-third of the distance off and nine times larger than when they are seen
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