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In the Light Dependent Processes Light Reactions light strikes chlorophyll a in such a way as to excite electrons to a higher energy state In a series of reactions the energy is converted along an electron transport process into ATP and NADPH Water is split in the process releasing oxygen as a by-product of the reaction The ATP and NADPH are used to make C-C bonds in the Light Independent Process In the Light Independent Process carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or water for aquaticmarine organisms is captured and modified by the addition of Hydrogen to form carbohydrates general formula of carbohydrates is CH2On The incorporation of carbon dioxide into organic compounds is known as carbon fixation The energy for this comes from the first phase of the photosynthetic process Living systems cannot directly utilize light energy but can through a complicated series of reactions convert it into C-C bond energy that can be released by glycolysis and other metabolic processes Photosystems are arrangements of chlorophyll and other pigments packed into thylakoids Many Prokaryotes have only one photosystem Photosystem II so numbered because while it was most likely the first to evolve it was the second one discovered Eukaryotes have Photosystem II plus Photosystem I Photosystem I uses chlorophyll a in the form referred to as P700 Photosystem II uses a form of chlorophyll a known as P680 Both active forms of chlorophyll a function in photosynthesis due to their association with proteins in the thylakoid membrane Photophosphorylation is the process of converting energy from a light-excited electron into the pyrophosphate bond of an ADP molecule This occurs when the electrons from water are excited by the light in the presence of P680 The energy transfer is similar to the chemiosmotic electron transport occurring in the mitochondria Light energy causes the
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