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system or technique for detecting the position movement and nature of a remote object by means of radio waves reflected from its surface Although most radar units use microwave frequencies the principle of radar is not confined to any particular frequency range There are some radar units that operate on frequencies well below 100 megahertz megacycles and others that operate in the infrared range and above The term radar an acronym for radio detection and ranging is also used to denote the apparatus for implementing the technique 1 Principles of Radar Radar involves the transmission of pulses of electromagnetic waves by means of a directional antenna some of the pulses are reflected by objects that intercept them The reflections are picked up by a receiver processed electronically and converted into visible form by means of a cathode-ray tube The range of the object is determined by measuring the time it takes for the radar signal to reach the object and return The objects location with respect to the radar unit is determined from the direction in which the pulse was received In most radar units the beam of pulses is continuously rotated at a constant speed or it is scanned swung back and forth over a sector also at a constant rate The velocity of the object is measured by applying the Doppler principle if the object is approaching the radar unit the frequency of the returned signal is greater than the frequency of the transmitted signal if the object is receding from the radar unit the returned frequency is less and if the object is not moving relative to the radar unit the return signal will have the same frequency as the transmitted signal 2 Applications of Radar The information secured by radar includes the position and velocity of the object with respect to the radar unit In some advanced systems the shape of
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