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Zionism is the Jewish national movement of rebirth and renewal in the land of Israel the historical birthplace of the Jewish people The yearning to return to Zion the biblical term for both the Land of Israel and Jerusalem has been the cornerstone of Jewish religious life since the Jewish exile from the land two thousand years ago and is embedded in Jewish prayer ritual literature and culture Zionism originated in late 19th century Europe and is a form of nationalist irredentism seeking to reclaim the rightful lost territories of Israel1 One does not of course have to be Jewish in order to be a Zionist Zionists are split into many factions but are united by seeking to liberate reunite and maintain the rightful state of Israel In so doing it was inevitable that conflict would arise with the Arabs who had occupied the geographical territories of Palestine for many generations The Zionists and other Jewish movements sought to restore these geographical territories to Israel as well Anti-Semitic literally means prejudice against Semitic people but in practice it has been directed only against Jews Anti-Semitism became strong in Austria France and Germany and from 1881 pogroms in Poland and Russia caused refugees to flee to the USA to the UK and to other European countries as well as Palestine In the 20th century fascism and the Nazi Partys application of racial theories led to organized persecution and genocide Less dramatic forms of anti-Semitism were also common such as the routine exclusion of Jews from academic posts in US universities prior to 1945 After World War II the creation of Israel in 1948 provoked Palestinian anti-Zionism backed by the Arab world Anti-Semitism is still fostered by extreme right-wing groups such as the National Front in the UK and France and the neo-Nazis in particularly the USA and Germany Anti-Semitism is any form of ideology that discriminates against andor persecutes individuals or groups because of their
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