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Scientific Management Scientific management is the underlying belief that or rationalization is able to provide the basis for separating management from the execution of work The rationalization of work has the effect of transferring functions of planning monopoly of decision-making motivation and control Hales 1994 Taylor 1856-1915 has been referred to as the father of Scientific Management He believed that management not labor was the cause of and potential solution to problems in the industry Taylor concluded that workers systematically soldiered because they believed that faster work would put them out of a job and because hourly or daily wages destroyed individual incentive Taylor believed that in order to discourage and indeed halt this soldiering a mental revolution was required He believed this could be achieved via four vital principles 1 the development of the best work method via systematic observation measurement and analysis 2 the scientific selection and development of workers 3 the relating and bringing together of the best work method and the developed and trained worker 4 the co-operation of managers and non-managers which includes the division of work and the managers responsibility of work From this next five key factors have evolved what lie at the foundation of scientific management Hales 1994 has summarized these as follows -Systematic standardized work methods via mechanization and standard times -A clean functional division between managers and non-managers separation of conception from execution -Centralized planning and control -An instrumental low-involvement employment relationship due to the requirement of the individual employee being that of just carrying out their specific low-skilled task -An ideology neutral technical efficiency Industries that have embraced such scientific management methods have essentially deskilled the workforce often by menial repetitive tasks and have attempted to replace workers with machines wherever technically feasible and economic A classic example of such an application is the Fordist principle of the production line The remainder of the essay concentrates on the two key
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