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Discuss with reference to ethnic conflict in the Caucasus Russias war with Chechnya Your discussion must cite specific aspects of the conflict and lead up to the war in 1994 The world is populated with multiethnic states 82 percent of all ethnic states comprise two or more ethnic groups which are often involved in disputes either with each other or with the state itself Toft 2003 17 An example of the latter is the Chechen - Russian conflict In 1783 Tsarist Russia instigated a major incursion into the North Caucasus to subjugate and colonize the area It began with the annexation of Azaq and the Crimean Khanate and took eighty years of Russian insurgence to succeed Broxup 199483 Panico 1995 256 However success in the wars did not endure for long Starting from then Chechnya has persistently resisted Russian domination whether under the Tsarist regime as the USSR or under the Russian Federation Through the 18th century from 1785- 91 a resistance led by Sufi Naqshibandyi brotherhood leader Sheik Mansur stretched from north Dagestan to the Kuban Tatarstan This was followed in the 19th century by a more threatening revolt led by Imam Shamil in the form of a religious uprising lasting between 1834- 59 and another revolt in 1877- 78 during the Russo- Turkish war In the 20th century the first resistance was after the Bolshevik revolution in 1920 - 21 another small anti- Chechen violence that erupted in Grozny in 1958 and finally another conflict in August 1991 following the putsch against the then Soviet President Gorbachev In December 1994 Boris Yeltsin launched a sudden attack that lasted till August 1996 when the cease- fire agreement was signed in the town of Khasavyurt Kovalev 2000 3 Lieven 1998 8 - 10 Panico 1995 256 - 258 Toft 2003 64 - 66 The Chechen - Russian conflict like Kosovo Kashmir Palestine and Afghanistan is as a result of ethnic differences where minority
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