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ER Golgi And Vesicles ER And Vesicles Thousands of structures with membranes crowd the eukaryotic cytoplasm the most numerous being called the endoplasmic reticulum ER a dense network of membranes running through the cytoplasm of every cell and enclosing a network of interconnected tubes cisternae which form a connecting channel throughout the cytoplasm Endoplasmic means inside the cytoplasm and reticulum means network The ER can make up a significant percentage of the overall volume of the cell There are two types of ER rough ER RER so-called because its cytoplasmic face is dotted with ribosomes and smooth ER SER which is devoid of ribosomes The RER is more extensive than SER and acts as a protein producer and storage vessel Amino acid chains freshly synthesised by the ribosomes slide through tiny holes in its membrane into the cisternae where they remain until they are sent elsewhere in the cytoplasm or to the cell edge where they are secreted or incorporated into the cell membrane The membranes of the ER usually form a tightly packed and flattened sac-like structures that form inter-connected compartments within the cytoplasm The internal space formed by the membrane sheets is known as the ER lumen In most cells the ER lumen forms a single internal compartment The membranes of other organelles are not connected to the ER and appear to form separate distinct compartments within the cytoplasm The ER membranes and lumen contain a large number and variety of enzymes which catalyse many different types of chemical reactions In some cases the membranes serve as a framework for systems of enzymes that carry out sequential biochemical reactions Other ER enzymes are located within the ER lumen If labelled amino acids are introduced into live cells the radioactivity first appears in the ribosomes Within a few minutes it is found in the membrane enclosed sacs of the rough ER The reason for this is that proteins are produced at the
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