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Word Count: 1,518
During the period January 1848 to August 1849 there were many revolutions across the face of Europe They occurred in France Italy Piedmont The Austrian Empire Germany Poland Holland Denmark and Switzerland These events which occurred across Europe had many similarities both in their origins nature and consequences but just as many differences Many of these similarities lie in the fact that the leaders surrendered power easily and the type of government that was set-up Consequently historians disagree In France there was a general feeling of dislike for the King Louis-Phillipe the XVIII Phillipes country badly needed much liberal social reform to keep the citizens happy However Phillipe was not prepared to give any ground in the direction of social reform He ignored the principles behind parliamentary government and appointed first ministers who agreed with his decisions He also manipulated elections as well as gave judiciary favours Phillipe stubbornly resisted attempts to make government more representative and responsive These actions caused discontent among the French Banquets were organised by the middle classes to protest at the governments intransigence Phillipe quickly had them banned when they became too radical In Rome the Pope Pope Pius the IX was also unpopular He had earned himself the nickname of the liberal Pope as a result of his introduction of many liberal reforms During 1833 - 1834 he freed political prisoners and allowed political exiles to return from abroad because of pressure from the people whos views were altered by nationalists and groups such as the Carbonari and the whole risorgimento movement However when things turned awkward because of pressure from nationalists and liberals like Giusseppe Mazzini Balbo Gioberti and Cataneo he was only too quick to withdraw them The people were left with a feeling of anger at their leader Economic crisis hit Europe in 1846 as a direct result of the sudden burst of industrial development The economic growth encouraged speculative investment
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