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Integration Theory Some theorists have generally viewed integration as a process leading to a condition called political community in the international level as primarily consensual or based principally on the development of shared norms values interests or goals According to some theorists the world of the twentieth century was characterised by growing numbers of technical issues that could be resolved only by cooperative action across state boundaries Such issues could best be addressed by highly trained specialists or technicians rather than by politicians because such pressing problems could be addressed outside the politicised context of ideology or nationalism Also according to these theorists it was essential to have a cooperation This functional cooperation would come necessary international institutions in the form of organisations and regimes based on multilateralism in the terminology of many of Functionalist theorists Later another group of theorists emerged Neo-functionalist theorists Their principal contribution lies in the explanation modification and testing of hypotheses about integration The major emphasis is placed on the role of political parties and interest groups and the extend to which political elites in the units to be integrated support or oppose integration Neo-functionalist theory within its European Union context attaches major importance to an integrative process leading ultimately to a federation or political union Functionalist theory has been the object of several kinds of criticism and modifications that it is difficult if not impossible to separate the economic and social tasks from the political that governments have shown themselves unwilling to hand over to international authority tasks that encroach on the political that certain economic and social tasks do not spill over into the political sector that the road to political integration lies through political acts of will rather than through functional integration in economic and social sectors In another critique of functionalism it is stated that there is little evidence to suggest that technology and economic growth by themselves will produce integration through functional
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