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Project Management Processes Project management is an integrative endeavor-an action or failure to take action in one area will usually affect other areas The interactions may be straightforward and well understood or they may be suitable and uncertain These interactions often require trade-offs among project objectives-performance in one area may be enhanced only by sacrificing performance in another Successful project management requires actively managing these interactions I will introduce the concept of project management as a number of interlinked processes and provides an essential foundation for understanding the process descriptions including 1 Project Processes 2 Process Groups 3 Process Interactions and 4 Customizing Process Interactions Project Processes Projects are composed of processes A process is a series of actions bringing about a result Project processes are performed by people and generally fall into one of two major categories Project management processes are concerned with describing and organizing the work of the project Product-oriented processes are concerned with specifying and creating the project product Product-oriented processes are typically defined by the project life cycle and vary by application area Project management processes and product-oriented processes overlap and interact throughout the project For example the scope of the project cannot be defined in the absence of some basic understanding of how to create the product Process Groups Project management processes can be organized into five groups of one or more processes each Initiating processes recognizing that a project or phase should begin and committing to do so Planning processes devising and maintaining a workable scheme to accomplish the business need that the project was undertaken to address Executing processes coordinating people and other resources to carry out the plan Controlling processes ensuring that project objectives are met by monitoring and measuring progress and taking corrective action when necessary Closing processes formalizing acceptance of the project or phase and bringing it to an orderly end The process groups are linked by the results they produce
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