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Annotated Bibliography Fulton Betsy Amy Stichman Lawrence Travis and Edward Latessa Moderating Probation and Parole Officer Attitudes to Achieve Desired Outcomes Prison Journal 773 1997 295-313 CECybrary ProQuest Database Allentown Business School Center Valley PA 7 July 2004 ltwwwcecybrarycomgt This study was an assessment of the role preferences of probation and parole officers and the conflict between control and treatment It was determined that organizational philosophy is a determinate on officers attitudes and preferences Specifically the authors focus was on offender outcomes of two polar intensive supervision programs It was determined that the law enforcement surveillance-oriented approach was not effective in reducing offender recidivism In contrast effective intervention aimed at assistance problem resolution and treatment demonstrated a significant reduction in recidivism Findings concluded that officers need stronger and more comprehensive training to focus on rehabilitative functions and strategies in light of its affect on offender recidivism As applied to this research prospectus the study directs inquiry and suggests the need for entry-level training in treatment and rehabilitative strategies for probation and parole officers Lowry Kevin D United States probationpretrial officers concerns about victimization and officer safety training Federal Probation 641 2000 51-55 CECybrary EBSCOhost Database Allentown Business School Center Valley PA 7 July 2004 ltwwwcecybrarycomgt Lowry describes the shift in role and activities from social work to law enforcement This study on US ProbationPretrial Officers presents a claim that subjects under supervision have become more dangerous and training safety issues have become major concerns The research involved a national survey of officers and a measured comparison of the type and frequency of officer victimization officers concerns for personal safety their satisfaction with training methodologies and equipment ideological orientation and high-risk activities performed The study hypothesized that training would reduce victimization and that law enforcement ideology and high-risk activities would increase it No statistically significant relationship between training ideological orientation and high-risk activities on victimization rates was established Pursuant to training no type of training was
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