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Along their evolutionary timeline disease-causing bacteria have developed multiple strategies to circumvent phagocytic immune responses and optimize survivability in hostile molecular environments These strategies range from avoiding molecular recognition by phagocytic cells to deliberately stimulating phagocytosis to gain entry into endosomes and more hospitable cytosolic spaces Bacteria that avoid recognition by phagocytes typically do so by destroying or inhibiting opsonins both of complement and antibody nature modifying their microbial ligands inhibiting phagocyte chemotaxis or by interfering with phagocytic receptors Bacteria that avoid destruction after being phagocytised on the other hand employ a different set of survival strategies These include arresting phagosome maturation developing resistances against antimicrobial peptides neutralizing reactive agents produced by phagocytes escaping endosomes prior to lysosome fusion and manipulating the internal environment of phagosomes Most bacteria employ several of these survival mechanisms synergistically in order to maximize their chances of surviving and replicating within their respective hosts In the following sections of this essay I will discuss some of these strategies in further detail by describing the complex evasion systems developed by Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Both of these disease-causing bacteria have evolved several of the aforementioned mechanisms to evade phagocytic immune responses and as a result they have become capable of causing persistent infections in immunocompetent individuals Staphylococcus aureusStaphylococcus aureus serves as an exemplary case of a bacterial species that exhibits various lines of defense against phagocytic recognition engulfment and destruction Phagosome SurvivalSarAPhagocytes produce super-oxide radicals during a process known as respiration bursts These super-oxide radicals or reactive oxygen compounds inflict lethal damage to bacterial cells by interacting with the sulphur atoms of methionine amino acids to form methionine sulphate hence disrupting the structural integrity of bacterial proteins S aureus is able to subvert the phagosomes deadly super-oxide radical mechanism by producing a number of oxide dismutases Some of these super-oxide dismutases include two enzymes that remove O2- species from the phagosomal environment It has been tested in vitro that
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