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Biographical Sketch of James Dewey WatsonJames D Watson is best known for his discovery of the structure of DNA deoxyribonucleic acid for which he shared with Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine They proposed that the DNA molecule takes the shape of a double helix an elegantly simple structure that resembles a gently twisted ladder The rails of the ladder are made of alternating units of phosphate and the sugar deoxyribose the rungs are each composed of a pair of nitrogen-containing nucleotidesSalk Jonas Edward 1914 -- 1995 Immunologist born in New York City He began his pathbreaking studies on viruses and immunization by starting with the influenza virus while at the University of Michigan 1942--47 At the University of Pittsburgh 1947--63 he developed the first vaccination against poliomyelitis a killed-virus vaccine introduced to the public in 1953 By 1961 and after some resistance Albert Sabins simpler and stronger live-virus oral vaccine had supplanted Salks injectable vaccine in the United States Salks vaccine is now used only in a few countries around the world He is the founderdirector 1963 of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego Calif and is on the board of directors of the Immune Response Corporation which is pursuing treatment for AIDS and other diseases such as multiple sclerosis Among his writings are Man Unfolding 1972 and Anatomy of Reality Merging of Intuition and Reason 1983 Widely honored he holds the French Legion of Honor 1955 and the Presidential Medal of Freedom 1977 Pincus Gregory Goodwin Goody 1903 -- 1967 Endocrinologist born in Woodbine NJ He taught at four Massachusetts universities - Harvard 1931--38 Clark 1938--45 Tufts 1946--50 and Boston University 1950--67 In 1944 he cofounded the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology one of the first laboratories set up expressly to channel scientific discoveries directly into commercial development He concentrated on studying hormones and other factors in mammalian reproduction and - with financial
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