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B general characteristics of subsequent evolution 1 congress generally dominant over presidency until 20th century a exceptions A Jackson A Lincoln T Roosevelt and W Wilson 2 major political struggles where in congress a issues of national significance eg slavery admission of new states internal improvements tariffs business regulation b conflict over distribution of power in congress 1 centralization if quick and decisive action needs 2 decentralization if members and constituency interests are dominant 3 general trend in 20th century toward decentralization C Phase one the powerful house of rep 1 by early 1800s house asserts dominance originated most legislation nominated presidential candidates speaker of house becomes powerful 2 party caucuses shaped policy questions selection of party candidate for presidency made presidents quite sensitive to congressional desires D Phase 2 A divided house 1 assertiveness of A Jackson vetoed bills he didnt like 2 caucus system for picking president candidate disappears replaces with national nominating conventions 3 issue of slavery and civil war shatter party unity limiting speakers power 4 radical republicans impose harsh measures on post civil war south and voted to impeach president Johnson E phase 3 rise of a powerful speaker 1 end of 19th century speaker gains broad powers a selected chairmen and members of all committees rewarded friends and punished enemies b chaired rules committee c decided what bills would come up for vote and what limitations on debate would be d decided who could speak on floor of house F phase 4 revolt against the speaker 1 early 20th century speaker stripped of power to appoint committee members and chairmen membership on powerful rules committee taken away 2 power cost by speaker emerged in other places a party caucus leader influential and respected reasserted a party unity b rules committee decided what bill came up for vote and in what order set restrictions on length of debate and members ability to offer amendments to bills
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