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Section 4 Consciousness Pages 114-117 IDefining Consciousness aConsciousness is commonly defined as being aware of the immediate environment iFor example knowing when to go to class or work bConsciousness also deals with awareness of your thoughts feelings and memories iExamples 1Making plans for dates 2Getting annoyed at your performance in school 3Thinking back about good times with your friends cEarly psychologists and their studies iWhen early psychologists studied the mind they studied consciousness 1William Wundt late 1880s had subjects report contents of consciousness while working falling asleep and sitting still 2Sigmund Freud 1900s wrote that needs desires and influences are part of the conscious and people have different levels of consciousness dDualism iStarted by French philosopher Rene Descartes stated that mind and body are separate but interacting iiDualism says that one thing cannot exist without its opposite 1Light cannot exist without darkness 2Good cannot exist without the presence of evil 3The body cannot function without the mind and so forth eMaterialism iPsychologists say that our mental activity is rooted in the brain iiDominant perspective with modern psychologists iiiTends to take a less black and white view of consciousness versus unconsciousness ivPsychologists say that you are more aware of certain mental processes over others 1For example doing the same routine at work and time seems to go by faster vCognitive psychologists ignore the unconscious They call it the deliberate versus the automatic fDifferent levels of Consciousness iFreud and other cognitive psychologists came up with this theory 1Consciousness is a continuum aAlert attention bDreaming cHypnosis dDrug-induced states 2Someone who isnt paying attention is still conscious just not as conscious as someone that is alert 3Believes that drinking will bring you into a lower level of consciousness 4If you are in a state of consciousness that is different from what you normally are you are in an altered state of consciousness 5When you are asleep however you are in a state of turned off consciousness Hobson 1994
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