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This essay intends to define Maternal and Deprivation and Bowlbys Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis 1953 Following this I aim to discuss some of the research of Michael Rutter 1976 and 1981 Tizard and Hodges 1978 and Cockett and Tripp 1994 who all challenged Bowlbys concept of Maternal Deprivation Following these challenges I will briefly state that Bowlby 1956 ended up readdressing his own theory on Maternal Deprivation The definition of maternal in the Oxford Concise Dictionary 1995 is of or like a mother motherly and the definition of deprivation is state of suffering from the effects of a poor or loveless home Psychologists see deprivation as a long-term break in the bond between parent and child However the term Maternal Deprivation arises from the work of the developmental psychoanalyst John Bowlby 1907-1990 whose lifetime work was based around studying Childhood through Developmental Psychology He was interested in finding out about how the patterns of family interaction could affect mental health Bowlby believed that there are enormous psychological consequences for a child who has experienced separation from its maternal figure which he concluded in his 44 Thieves Study 1944 Bowlby believed that these effects were taken from childhood into adulthood thus causing permanent psychological damage However Bowlby was not alone in looking at the effects of separation on children Michael Rutter 1981 said that he generally supported Bowlbys study but through his own study Isle of Wight 1976 he determined that Bowlby had oversimplified the causes and effects of delinquency Michael Rutter et al 1976 studied 2000 boys and their families on the Isle of Wight The aim of the study was to see if separation caused delinquency as stated in Bowlbys hypothesis During this study they found out that those who had experienced separation through the illness or death of their parents were unlikely to suffer from delinquency however those whose separation was caused by family friction or parents with psychiatric problems
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