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In this paper I shall set out to describe according to Bertrand Russell the logical form of two inferences I shall also speak about their validity The inferences are Sam ate the sandwich so someone ate the sandwich Sam believes George Orwell wrote Animal Farm Eric Blair is George Orwell so Sam believes Eric Blair wrote Animal Farm In between I shall speak about why Russell views proper names as disguised descriptionsThe logical form of the first inference Sam ate the sandwich so someone ate the sandwich follows Russells logical form pattern of the phi is psi this will be spoken about later The logical form of the sentence Sam ate the sandwich so some one ate the sandwich according to Russell is There is at least one x such that x ate the sandwich and for every y if y ate the sandwich then y is x and x is Sam The logical form of the sentence Someone ate the sandwich would be there exists at least one x such that x ate the sandwich The inference is valid because the conclusion follows from the premises and the conclusion can not seem false based on the premises What led Russell to view proper names as disguised definite descriptors is the sentence The present King of France is bald When examining the truth-value and logical form of this sentence Russell was confronted with a problem We could say that the sentence is false if we were admitting that there is a present King of France and he is not bald However assuming that the logical form that we assume of the sentence is correct mainly the predicate not bald taken on by the present King of France our false claim must be false since there is no present King of France Thus Russell believed that the logical form of a sentence was more complex than what the surface form of a sentence depicted it to
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