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The periodic table was developed by Dmitry Mendeleev in 1869 It classifies the elements according to their properties and increasing atomic weight The atomic number which identifies an elements position in the periodic table is equal to the amount of protons in the nucleus From spaces in his table Mendeleev was able to predict the existence of elements not yet discovered Dmitry Mendeleev was a Russian chemist best known for his development of the periodic law of the properties of the chemical elements This law states that elements show a periodicity of properties when they are arranged according to atomic weight Mendeleev was born in Siberia He studied chemistry at the University of Saint Petersburg and in 1859 he was sent to study at the University of Heidelberg There he met the Italian chemist Stanislao Cannizzaro whose views on atomic weight influenced his thinking Mendeleev was a renowned teacher and he wrote the book Principles of Chemistry which became a classic During the writing of this book Mendeleev tried to classify the elements according to their chemical properties In 1869 he published his first version of what became known as the periodic table in which he demonstrated the periodic law In 1871 he published an improved version of the periodic table in which he left gaps for elements that were not yet known His chart and theories gained increased acceptance when three predicted elementsgallium germanium and scandiumwere subsequently discovered English scientist John Dalton realised that what distinguished an atom of one element from an atom of another was its weight when he put forward his atomic theory Soon after Dalton published his atomic theory Italian chemist Amadeo Avogadro showed that it made sense to suppose that a fixed volume of gas whatever its chemical constitution always contained the same number of particles atoms or molecules This was Avogadros hypothesis It was largely ignored at the time but it became very important 50 years
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