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Word Count: 481
The Crusades were militarily unsuccessful but the economic scientific religious and cultural aspects impacted the West profoundly After the Crusades halted various trade routes opened up between Eastern and Western cities The Crusades hastened the development Western Europes science technology literature and religious ideas In the tenth and eleventh centuries a number of monks became concerned about the moral and organizational state of the Church They formed a movement known as the Cluniac Reform movement which eventually took control of the papacy and brought a lot of change to Western Christianity One of these changes involved an adjustment to the Just War doctrine Church and state were closely intertwined in this period and some people concluded that this meant that Christs will for mankind embodied in the Church could also be exercised through the political structures of Christian peoples They also theorized that violence might not simply be the lesser of two evils They said violence was morally neutral and those who used violence to advance Christs kingdom might be doing positive good The most important effect of the Crusades was economic The Italian cities prospered from the transport of Crusaders and replaced Byzantines and Muslims as merchant-traders in the Mediterranean Trade passed through Italy to Western Europe at a large profit This commercial power became the economic base of the Italian Renaissance It also provoked such Atlantic powers as Spain and Portugal to seek trade routes to India and China Their efforts through such explorers as Vasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus helped to open most of the world to European trade dominance and colonization and to shift the center of commercial activity from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic West Europeans adopted a number of agricultural innovations during the crusades including the heavy plow and the horse collar It seems likely that these innovations increased food production which in turn increased population making manpower for more crusades available The Europeans worked with
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