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Electoral systems are the oldest and arguably the most important institution of a democratic nation The right to vote is quintessential to democracy itself however how that vote is translated into political power depends on what type of electoral system is being used For example in a proportional system PR 40 of the vote will translate into 40 of the seats in the legislature This does not occur in the first past the post FPTP system whereby percentage of votes does not equal percentage of seats Single majority plurality systems or first past the post system uses a winner-take-all single seat district system whereby votes going to a losing candidate are wasted For example if a candidate earned 49 of the vote and the winning candidate takes 51 those 49 of votes are unrepresentative Nonetheless each system has its own unique advantages and each system will yield different impacts on the politics and the complexion of a nation The key arguments about electoral systems revolve around the questions of democratic quality and the effectiveness of decision-making Democratic quality is the means by which a system meets such democratic values as representativeness accountability equality and participation Lijphart 2 Consequently we shall examine the argument for Canada to reform its electoral system from a single-member plurality system to a proportional system with respect to which will ensure greater democratic qualities and effective leadership Canadas political system resembles its British counterpart as was the intention of the 1867 British North America Act Consequently Canada inherited the same electoral system a single member plurality or first past the post system Some parties have rallied for a reform of the electoral system usually smaller and under-represented parties such as the Green parties The reason for this is that it is in general agreement that PR systems yield greater proportionality and minority representation Lijphart 2 Canada arguably faces shocking measure of voter apathy citizen ignorance and distorted
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