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Introduction An electric Car is an automobile with an electric motor powered by a system of rechargeable batteries Electric cars are mechanically simpler and more durable than gasoline-powered cars and they do not have to exploit nonrenewable resources natural resources that cannot be replaced They also produce less pollution than do gasoline-powered cars I How Electric Cars Work An electric car has a battery a charger for replenishing the batterys power from an electrical outlet and a controller The Controller is connected to the accelerator pedal for directing the flow of electricity between the battery and motor Most electric cars use lead-acid batteries but new types of batteries including zinc-chlorine nickel metal hydride and sodium-sulfur are being developed To recharge the batteries operators plug the car into a 120-volt or 240-volt outlet The motor of an electric car harnesses the batterys electrical energy by converting it to kinetic energy or energy that makes the car move The driver simply switches on the power selects Forward or Reverse with another switch and steps on the accelerator pedal While the internal-combustion engine of a conventional car has many moving parts an electric motor has only a single rotating element Like a gasoline-powered car an electric car has a system called a power train of gears shafts and joints that transmit motion from the motor to the car wheels Most electric cars do not have clutches or multispeed transmissions In order to go backward the flow of electricity through the motor is reversed changing the rotation of the motor and causing the power train to make the wheels reverse direction Most electric cars have a regenerative braking systemthe braking system acts as a battery charger When drivers take their feet from the accelerator the motor acts as a generator and converts the energy caused by the movement of the vehicle back into electricity and stores it in the battery Converting the kinetic energy
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