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ArgumentRhetoric itself is the art of argument and discourse People can disagree with each other especially deeply held beliefs Rhetoric turns this disagreement into a debate The rhetorician uses his text to persuade his audience Aristotle discussed logical argument at length maxims topics and strategies enthymemes a logical argument with a part of the argument missing because it is assumed Perelman said there are two ways the rhetor can insure that his audience is adhering to each successive element of an argument 2001 The first way is by making associations according to quasi-logical arguments appeals to reality and arguments that establish the real The second approach responds to incompatible opinions through the dissociation of concepts Perelman sends the message that all argumentation must start from a point of agreement One cannot introduce contentious matters until sufficient agreement on prior or related issues has been established The bases of agreement are divided into two categories the first deals with facts truths and presumptions the second with values hierarchies and loci of the preferablePerelman C 2001 The new rhetoric A theory of practical reasoning In P Bizzell B Herzberg Eds The rhetorical tradition pp1384-1409 New York Bedford BooksAudienceAll rhetoric has dealt in some fashion with the concept of audience how an audience takes in the composition of the discourse and responds to it The audience consists of individuals listening to a speech or viewing a performance or reading a piece of writing The rhetorical audience includes those who can be persuaded by rhetoric Two scholars significant for their treatment of the rhetorical audience are Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca 1969Perelman C Olbrechts-Tyteca L 1969 The new rhetoric A treatise on argumentation Trans by J Wilkinson P Weaver Notre Dame University of Notre Dame PressDramatismKenneth Burke devised the idea of dramatism so the social uses of language could be understood 1989 He surmised that language is a specific planned
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