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Ethernet connects the hosts on each floor to switches A B C and D 100-Mbps Fast Ethernet connects these to Switch E VLAN 10 consists of those hosts on ports 6 and 8 of Switch A and Port 2 on Switch B VLAN 20 consists of those hosts that are on Port 1 of Switch A and Ports 1 and 3 of Switch B VLANs can be used to group a set of related users regardless of their physical connectivity They can be located across a campus environment or even across geographically dispersed locations The users might be assigned to a VLAN because they belong to the same department or functional team or because data flow patterns among them is such that it makes sense to group them together Note however that without a router hosts in one VLAN cannot communicate with hosts in another VLAN Virtual LANs solve some of the scalability problems of large flat networks by breaking a single bridged domain into several smaller bridged domains each of which is a virtual LAN Note that each virtual LAN is itself constrained by the scalability issues described in Appendix E Broadcasts in Switched LAN Internetworks It is insufficient to solve the broadcast problems inherent to a flat switched network by superimposing virtual LANs and reducing broadcast domains VLANs without routers do not scale to large campus environments Routing is instrumental in the building of scalable VLANs and is the only way to impose hierarchy on the switched VLAN internetwork This section examines virtual LANs and presents general network designs that successfully implement switched LANs and VLANs The terms switching and bridging are used interchangeably The section discusses the following topics Benefits of VLANs VLAN Implementation Benefits of VLANs VLANs offer the following features Broadcast control---Just as switches isolate collision domains for attached hosts and only forward appropriate traffic out a particular port VLANs refine
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