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The first efforts at developing a multi-user multi-tasking operating system were begun in the 1960s in a development project called MULTICS While working for Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1969 and 1970 Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie began to develop their own single-user multi-tasking small operating system and they chose the name UNIX Their initial goal was simply to operate their DEC PDP machines more effectively In 1971 UNIX became multi-user and multi-tasking but it was still just being developed by a small group of programmers who were trying to take advantage of the machines they had at hand In other words this operating system that they were developing did not run on any machine made by Bell In 1973 Dennis Ritchie rewrote the UNIX operating system in C a language he had developed And in 1975 the portability of the C programming language was used to port UNIX to a wide variety of hardware platforms For legal reasons Bell Labs was not able to market UNIX in the 1970s though they did share this operating system with many universities - most notably UC-Berkeley This led to some of the variations in UNIX which we see today After the divestiture of the Bell System their parent company ATT became much more interested in marketing a commercial version of UNIX And today we see that many companies have now licensed their own version ATTs System V Versions of System V such as SCOs Xenix and IBMs AIX Berkeleys UNIX called BSD for Berkeley System Development Versions of Berkeley UNIX such as Sun Microsystems SunOS DECs Ultrix and Carnegie Mellon Universitys Mach used on the NEXT
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