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P53 is called the guardian of genome Lane 1992 It helps to eradicate or maintain the impaired cells the malfunctioning cells or the DNA fragments It can also be called as the double edged sword As it has both the advantage and the disadvantage Advantage in the sense that it checks the cell for any malfunction and Disadvantage in the sense that its malfunction can cause disease like tumour and cancer The p53 tumour suppressor activity is supressed in cancer cells by different pathways One of the most common pathway is the mutation of the p53 itself The cancer cells over express different oncogenes regulate kinases induce proteins increase hormone level and enzymes by different mechanism in different pathways to supress the activity of the p53 These different mechanism affect the different functions of the p53 thus causing it to inactivate or supressP53 was first discovered in 1979 by the co-precipitation with the large T-antigen in the SV40 Simian virus DeLeo et al 1979 During the 80s p53 was thought to be induced only by malignant cells The phosphorylation of p53 in the kinase activity was due to serine and threonine but not tyrosine Different oncogenic viruses had the same kinases so the p53 was thought to be an oncogene Jay et al 1981 The first p53 tested in human was in breast cancer patient and found that there was an anti-p53 antibody against protein p53 The p53 became immunogenic by changing its amount type and presentation in breast cancer patient Crawford et al 1982 Later around 1982 a concept was generated by preforming many experiments that p53 was involved in the cell growth and proliferation Mercer et al 1982 After some year another hypothesis was postulated that p53 was involved in DNA synthesis by preparing the cells Maltzman Czyzyk 1984 Likewise the experiment performed in 1985 on human peripheral blood lymphocytes showed that p53 was involved in cell cycle The regulation of
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