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In Voltaires Candide the author uses the conclusion of the story to relate to the beginning to convey the message that philosophical rationalism is bad and moreover optimism Voltaire accomplishes this by piling tragic events one after another throughout the story rejecting Pangloss idea that all is for the best Furthermore Candide concludes that both the teachings of Dr Pangloss and Martins theory are both wrong and that we must cultivate our garden Voltaire 585 To begin with Voltaire creates the character of Dr Pangloss to epitomize the extremes of an optimist In the beginning everyone and everything was well and Pangloss theory that all is for the best made perfect sense After escaping from the Bulgars Candide proclaims Master Pangloss was right indeed when he told me everything is for the best in this world for I am touched by your kindness far more than by the harshness of that black coated gentleman and his wife This statement would make sense if all is well after this tragedy but right after this statement Candide runs into Dr Pangloss himself and finds that his mentor is perishing This is an example of how tragic events compulsively take place throughout the story and furthermore shows how ridiculous it is when Pangloss provides a rational explanation for it This repeatedly happens throughout the story and is also why the reader fails to have any sympathy for what happens to the characters in the story Pangloss optimism can be harmless such as when explains why we have noses so that we can wear glasses it may be callous as it is when he justifies the drowning of Jacques in the harbor of Lisbon it might be fantastic as it is when he explains that the syphilis in him is great since it also brought chocolate and cochineal into the world but no matter what form of optimism Pangloss takes on it is consistent throughout the story Richter 14
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