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Deep Ocean Trench A trench is any long narrow steep-sided depression in the ocean bottom The deepest known depression of this kind is the Mariana Trench which lies east of the Mariana Islands in the western North Pacific Ocean Of the Earths 20 major trenches 17 are found in the Pacific The only Atlantic trenches are the Puerto Rico Trench north of the Caribbean islands and the South Sandwich Trench east of Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica The single major Indian Ocean trench is the Java Trench south of Indonesia The cross sections of trenches generally are V-shaped with steeper landward sides Geophysical data provide important clues concerning the origin of trenches No abnormalities in the flow of internal Earth heat or variations in the Earths magnetic field occur at trenches Precision measurements reveal that the force of gravity generally is lower than normal Small quantities of brown or red clay which are signs of organic remains volcanic ash and lapilli and coarse graded layers are found in the trench Large amounts of remains cannot build up because they either are dragged into the Earths interior or are distorted into folded masses and molded into new material of the continents Deep trench in the sea bed indicating the presence of a destructive margin produced by the movements of plate tectonics The dragging downwards of one plate of the lithosphere beneath another means that the ocean floor is pulled down Ocean trenches are found around the edge of the Pacific Ocean and the northeastern Indian Ocean minor ones occur in the Caribbean and near the Falkland Islands Ocean trenches represent the deepest parts of the ocean floor the deepest being the Mariana Trench which has a depth of 11034 m36201 ft At depths of below 6 km36 mi there is no light and very high pressure ocean trenches are inhabited by crustaceans coelenterates for example sea anemones polychaetes a type of
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