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American Gov 101 Federalism Today I Grants Today the clearest exercise of federalism and a chief tool in the expansion of federal power is the grant system There are 3 kinds of grants a Categorical Grant A grant for a specific project which must be approved and reviewed by the federal government b Block Grant A grant for a general function health law enforcement etc These grants have some conditions and reporting requirements They are distributed on a formula basis c General Revenue Sharing Money that is given by the Federal government to local governments to use as they see fit Very few restrictions ended in 1986 by President Reagan Think of the advantages and disadvantages of each from both a federal and local standpoint II Recent Developments in Federalism Different authors have differing names and slightly different dates for the following eras but the concepts and evolution are similar 1868-1933 Dual Federalism Responsibilities divided by function between state local where federal government depended upon primarily its delegated powers 1934-1960 Cooperative Federalism Massive public projects undertaken usually with the support and encouragement of the states Both levels of government began to share functions that had exclusively been the states responsibility before 1960-1968 Creative Centralized Federalism National government becomes the most powerful actor in these formerly shared functions and uses its power even when states are opposed ie--Civil Rights 1968-1992 New Federalism An attempt to end federal interference in state affairs More reliance on block grants end of revenue sharing States not enthusiastic because end-result was often increased responsibility and expectations of the local government while there was a reduction in funding to local governments III Current Issues Preemption--related to supremacy clause Unfunded mandates--When the national government requires that the states do something but does not give them the funds to do it Examples School desegregation Minimum Drinking Age Minimum Wage Laws
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