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Four general Approaches to Contemporary Chinese Politics In studying contemporary Chinese politics there are four different approaches that can be employed ideology organization faction and statesociety Reviewing some of the major events in the post-1949 era the most useful way to interpret the events is to apply these various approaches pending on the time and circumstances When explaining the outbreak of the Cultural Revolution the most useful approach is to look at the event form the ideological perspective According to Maos theory of contradiction the main locomotive of history is the contradiction between production and the classes Among the three stages of the contradiction Mao announced that China was at its third stage at the peak of the class struggle Although it involves a violent revolution to develop to the next level Mao explained that with correct handling the process could be resolved by peaceful mean Thus Mao launched Great Leap forward Campaign to avoid violent stage However when Great Leap Forward resulted in a complete failure Mao turned his eyes to orthodox view He concluded that the violent class struggle is inevitable Mao implemented the Cultural Revolution in attempt to force China through stage two and three Thus the ideological approach will be the most helpful to understand the outbreak of the Cultural Revolution On the other hand factional approach is the least helpful in explaining the event of the Cultural Revolution Although Jiang Qing originally from Shanghai put her fellow Shanghaians such as Yao Wenyum Zhang Ounqiao and Wang Hongwen in charge there is no evidence that such Kuan-his practice was widely practiced in all major levels of the government Even though there were some Kuan-his hu in the higher levels of the government factional approach is not adequate to explain Furthermore one of the most useful ways in explaining the massacre of Tienanmun square in 1989 is to see it through the lens of statesociety approach Tienanmun massacre
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